Back to Blog

What are digital twins?

May 29, 2024

Callum Moates

Digital twins are virtual replicas of physical objects, systems, or processes that mirror their real-world counterparts in a digital environment. These digital models enable real-time simulation, prediction, and performance optimization by leveraging sensor data and other sources. Digital twins enhance operational efficiency, reduce maintenance costs, and improve decision-making processes across various industries.

The concept of digital twins originated with NASA's Apollo program in the 1960s, where virtual simulations were used to mirror and troubleshoot spacecraft conditions remotely. This pioneering application laid the groundwork for developing more sophisticated digital twin technology. Today, digital twins have expanded beyond aerospace to many industries, including manufacturing, healthcare, automotive, and urban planning. As technology advances, the capabilities of Digital Twins continue to evolve, offering increasingly accurate and comprehensive simulations that drive innovation and efficiency.

How they work

Data Collection

The Internet of Things (IoT) devices and sensors play a crucial role in the functioning of digital twins by collecting real-time data from real-world objects and enabling data communication between them and the internet. These devices are embedded in various assets, such as manufacturing equipment, smart buildings, vehicles, and healthcare devices. For example, in a smart building, sensors might monitor temperature, humidity, and occupancy levels. In contrast, in a manufacturing plant, sensors could track the operational status, energy consumption, and performance metrics of machinery. This continuous flow of data from the physical world to the digital model enables the creation of a detailed and dynamic representation of the physical entity.

Integration with AI and ML

Digital twins leverage artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) algorithms to process and analyze the vast amounts of data collected by sensors and IoT devices. These technologies enable the digital twin to detect patterns, identify anomalies, and predict future outcomes. Data insights provided help in enhancing performance optimization, maintenance, emissions outputs, and efficiencies. For instance, in manufacturing, AI and ML can predict equipment failures before they occur, allowing for proactive maintenance and reducing downtime. In smart buildings, these algorithms can optimize energy usage by predicting occupancy patterns and adjusting heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems accordingly.

Continuous Synchronization

Continuous synchronization ensures that the digital twin remains an accurate and up-to-date reflection of its physical counterpart. As changes occur in the physical entity—such as shifts in operational status, environmental conditions, or user interactions—the Digital Twin receives updated data from sensors and IoT devices. This real-time data flow allows the virtual model to dynamically adjust and align with the physical world. For example, suppose a sensor detects a temperature change in a smart building. In that case, the Digital Twin will update its virtual environment to reflect this change, ensuring that simulations and analyses are based on current conditions. Continuous synchronization is essential for maintaining the relevance and accuracy of the Digital Twin, enabling it to provide real-time insights and support decision-making processes effectively.

3D render of a Dubai government building

Applications of Digital Twins


  • Predictive maintenance: Digital twins enable predictive maintenance in manufacturing by continuously monitoring equipment health and performance. By analyzing sensor data, these virtual models can predict when machinery will likely fail, allowing maintenance to be scheduled before a breakdown occurs and reducing downtime and maintenance costs.

  • Optimizing production processes: Digital Twins help optimize production processes by simulating different scenarios and identifying the most efficient methods. Optimizations can involve adjusting machinery settings, production schedules, and resource allocation to improve throughput and reduce waste. For instance, a Capgemini Research Institute report titled 'Digital Twins: Adding Intelligence to the Real World' found that using digital twins resulted in a more than 25% improved system performance.

  • Enhancing product quality: Designers and engineers can gather deep data and insights from digital twins, which they can use to replicate digital versions of products and test them in different environments. With these simulations, designers can grasp complex product interactions and make changes to the product to improve performance and sustainability metrics. Mckinsey also found that products built with digital twins have 25% fewer issues once they enter production.

GE utilizes Digital Twins for their jet engines to predict business outcomes associated with the remaining life of critical components. Once the digital twin collects data on the asset, focusing on its life and efficiency, the analytics offered by GE's Predix platform help predict outcomes and suggest actions to maximize specific key performance metrics. These Digital Twins are instrumental in predicting the remaining life of turbine blades with high accuracy, enabling the optimization of key business indicators like uptime and throughput. By leveraging machine learning workflows, GE can detect anomalies in components like bearings up to 60 days in advance, enhancing maintenance efficiency and performance optimization. Furthermore, GE's digital twins allow for early warning anomaly detection, prediction, and optimization, contributing to increased profitability and performance across their industrial services.


  • Personalized medicine: Digital Twins enable customized medication plans by creating virtual models of patients to simulate different treatment options. This simulation helps identify the most effective therapies for individual patients based on their unique characteristics.

  • Surgery simulations: Surgeons use digital twins to plan and simulate complex surgeries, such as operating on a heart or removing a tumor. Simulations allow them to practice and refine their techniques, reducing the risk of complications during actual procedures.

  • Hospital management: Digital Twins can optimize hospital management by simulating patient flow, resource allocation, and emergency response scenarios, improving efficiency and patient care.

Philips has developed a digital twin model of the human heart called 'HeartModel' to revolutionize cardiac care. This virtual representation of a patient's heart is created using data from 2D ultrasound images. The digital heart twin is personalized to each patient based on their unique attributes, like heart size, structure, and function. It allows cardiologists to evaluate cardiac functions, diagnose cardiovascular diseases, and treat patients. It can assess how well the heart pumps blood, accurately indicating the possibility of heart failure.

Smart Cities

  • Urban planning: Digital twins simulate the impact of new developments, infrastructure changes, and environmental policies. Digital replicas of urban plans help city planners make informed decisions that enhance livability and sustainability. Planners can benefit from building cities with substantial cost efficiency, productivity gains, and carbon emission reductions.

  • Infrastructure management: By monitoring and simulating infrastructure performance, such as roads, bridges, and utilities, digital twins can identify maintenance needs and optimize resource allocation. For instance, risks created by extreme weather events, such as dust storms or high temperatures, can help city planners build resilient urban structures.

  • Improving traffic management: Digital twins help improve city functioning by analyzing data from various sources, such as traffic sensors and public transport systems. This data enables real-time congestion monitoring and adjustments to traffic signal timings, improving efficiency.

The Virtual Singapore project is an innovative initiative that involves creating a dynamic 3D city model and collaborative data platform of Singapore. Led by the National Research Foundation (NRF) and supported by the Singapore Land Authority (SLA) and the Government Technology Agency of Singapore (GovTech), Virtual Singapore aims to provide a detailed and data-rich digital twin of the city for various sectors to test solutions, plan, and make informed decisions. 

Critical aspects of the project include a highly detailed 3D digital model that allows users to navigate through the virtual city and access a wide range of information for simulations and urban planning solutions. The semantically enriched model enables advanced simulations and analyses for energy generation and disaster prevention. Real-time data from sensors nationwide also collect information such as air quality, temperature, and noise levels. Virtual Singapore offers a holistic view of the city-state, designed as a collaborative platform, allowing city planners to assess the impact of proposed changes on various factors like traffic and pollution. The model already sees the benefits of the data and virtual simulation, leading to savings of around $3.7 million annually, per a GlobalData publication.


  • Design and testing: Digital twins are used in automotive design and testing to simulate vehicle performance under various conditions. This process helps identify potential issues and optimize design before building physical prototypes.

  • Maintenance: Automotive manufacturers use virtual 3D models to monitor vehicle health and predict maintenance needs, ensuring timely servicing and improving vehicle reliability.

Tesla utilizes digital twins to monitor and enhance vehicle performance by creating a digital twin for each vehicle it sells. Tesla continuously streams data from thousands of cars to simulate their performance in the factory. This data is then interpreted by AI to assess whether the cars are functioning as intended and to identify where faults usually occur so that adjustments can be made if needed. Through the integration of AI and IoT, Tesla can learn from real-world data and optimize each car individually in real-time, enabling predictive maintenance. 

Energy Sector

  • Optimizing power plants: Digital twins help optimize operations by simulating different scenarios and identifying the most efficient power generation methods, like adjusting operational parameters to maximize output and reduce emissions.

  • Managing energy distribution: Digital twins enable better management of energy distribution networks by simulating demand patterns and identifying potential bottlenecks to improve the reliability and efficiency of the energy supply.

  • Integrating renewable energy sources: Digital Twins helps plan and optimize solar, wind, and other renewable energy use. Digital twins of solar plants, hydropower plants, or wind farms can offer insights on potential performance, helping us understand how they can be used alongside traditional energy plants.

Siemens' electric digital twin for energy grid management is a cutting-edge solution that enables utilities to optimize grid performance by providing a single source for data synchronization and exchange across various domains like operations, asset management, and outage management. This innovative approach allows for seamless interoperability and standardized data exchange, facilitating grid simulation, operations planning, and maintenance across all relevant domains for reliable, efficient, and secure electrical system management.

By leveraging the Siemens Electrical Digital Twin, utilities can achieve significant benefits, such as over 90% time savings in grid model creation and maintenance. It also helps improve accuracy in transmission planning and operations models.

3D render of a Middle East government building

The benefits of Digital Twins

Digital twins empower businesses to optimize performance, anticipate and prevent issues, and drive innovation by leveraging real-time data, predictive analytics, and extensive simulations. 

Below are some key benefits of 3D virtual replicas that highlight their transformative impact across industries:

Improved Efficiency

Digital twins significantly enhance operational efficiency by predicting issues before they occur. By continuously monitoring the performance of physical assets through sensors and IoT devices, Digital Twins can identify anomalies and potential failures early on. This predictive capability allows for proactive maintenance and timely interventions, preventing costly downtime and ensuring smoother operations. Additionally, Digital Twins can simulate various scenarios and process adjustments, optimizing workflows and resource allocation for maximum efficiency.

Cost Reduction

Using digital twins for assets and processes helps reduce unplanned downtime through predictive maintenance, and businesses can avoid the high costs associated with emergency repairs and operational disruptions. Furthermore, efficient resource utilization is facilitated by the optimized planning and execution of processes, minimizing waste and reducing operational expenses.

Enhanced Decision Making

Real-time data and predictive analytics greatly support better decision-making. The continuous flow of accurate and up-to-date information from the physical entity to its digital counterpart allows managers and decision-makers to gain deep insights into operational performance and potential future outcomes. 

Innovation and R&D

Digital twins are crucial in accelerating research and development by allowing for extensive virtual testing and simulations. Researchers can use digital twins to model and test new ideas, products, and processes in a virtual environment before implementing them in the real world. This capability reduces the time and cost associated with physical prototyping and experimentation. By iterating quickly and efficiently in the digital realm, innovations can be brought to market faster, driving technological advancements and competitive advantage.

May 29, 2024

Callum Moates

Subscribe to our monthly newsletter

About Landvault

Landvault is building infrastructure to accelerate the metaverse economy, by building tools to create, deploy and monetize content. The company has helped over 200 clients enter the metaverse, including both Fortune 500 companies and government organizations like the Abu Dhabi government, Mastercard, L’Oreal, Red Bull, and Heineken. The company has raised a total of $40m over the past three years and continues to pioneer technological advancements.

We build infrastructure for the 3D internet,
to create a richer, fairer internet.

Copyright ©️ 2023

Landvault · Wam Group

All rights reserved


We build infrastructure for the 3D internet,
to create a richer, fairer internet.

Copyright ©️ 2023 · Landvault · Wam Group · All rights reserved


We build infrastructure for the 3D internet,
to create a richer, fairer internet.

Copyright ©️ 2023 · Landvault · Wam Group · All rights reserved